She was married at 19 to Frank Besant but separated from him over religious differences. It was announced that the ultimate aim of British rule was Indian self-government and moves in that direction were promised. However his father later changed his mind and began a legal battle to regain the guardianship against the will of the boys.
After the war Annie Besant continued to campaign for Indian independence and for the causes of Theosophy until her death in 1933. She also became involved in politics in India joining the Indian National Congress. She became involved with Union organisers including the Bloody Sunday demonstration and the London matchgirls strike of 1888 and was a leading speaker for the Fabian Society and the Marxist Social Democratic Federation (SDF).